Friday, January 29, 2010

Muktzeh min haTorah - Rashi's opinion (hachana de'rabbah)

The possuk says in this week’s sedrah:


(שמות טז) והיה ביום הששי והכינו את אשר יביאו
“And it will be on the sixth day, they should prepare that which they bring.”

The gemara in Pesachim (47b) learns from this possuk that using muktzeh items is ossur mideoraisoh. Rashi is of the opinion that this is the maskana of the gemara and muktza is deoraisoh (see Penei Yehoshua Beitza 2b that says that this only applies to very severe types of muktzeh such as nolad.) Tosafos and the Meiri disagree and are of the opinion that this was only a haveh amina.

ומוקצה דאורייתא הוא א"ל אין דכתיב (שמות טז) והיה ביום הששי והכינו את אשר יביאו ואזהרתה מהכא (שמות כ) מלא תעשה כל מלאכה
“Is muktzeh deoraisoh? He answered, ‘Yes, as it says: והיה ביום הששי והכינו את אשר יביאו. The issur is from the possuk לא תעשה כל מלאכה.’”

Why is using muktze a melacha? Nothing has been made?

The mishna says in Beitza, דף ב,עמוד א:
ביצה שנולדה ביום טוב בית שמאי אומרים תאכל ובית הלל אומרים לא תאכל
“If an egg was born on Yom Tov, Beis Shammai say it can be eaten and Beis Hillel say that it can not be eaten.”

The gemara says:
במאי עסקינן אילימא בתרנגולת העומדת לאכילה מאי טעמייהו דבית הלל אוכלא דאפרת הוא אלא בתרנגולת העומדת לגדל ביצים מאי טעמייהו דבית שמאי מוקצה היא
“What is the case? If the chicken is intended to be eaten then according to Beis Hillel the egg should be mutar? The chicken is prepared to be shechted and eaten on Yom Tov, therefore if it laid an egg this should also not be muktezeh as it is a part of the chicken? If the chicken is used for laying eggs then according to Beis Shammai it should be muktzeh as the chicken itself is muktzeh and the egg is part of the chicken?”

Rabbah, on omud beis, answers that we are talking about a chicken that is intended for eating and nevetheless the egg is ossur:
אלא אמר רבה לעולם בתרנגולת העומדת לאכילה וביום טוב שחל להיות אחר השבת עסקינן ומשום הכנה וקסבר רבה כל ביצה דמתילדא האידנא מאתמול גמרה לה ורבה לטעמיה דאמר רבה מאי דכתיב (שמות טז) והיה ביום הששי והכינו את אשר יביאו חול מכין לשבת וחול מכין ליום טוב ואין יו"ט מכין לשבת ואין שבת מכינה ליום טוב
"The egg was born on a Yom Tov that fell on Sunday, the reason that it is ossur is because it is not prepared. Rabbah is of the opinion that an egg that is born today was completed yesterday and he is doresh the possuk: והיה ביום הששי והכינו את אשר יביאו – A weekday can prepare for Shabbos and a weekday can prepare for Yom Tov but Yom Tov cannot prepare for Shabbos and Shabbos cannot prepare for Yom Tov.”

Rashi explains:
והכינו׃ והזמינו כגון מכאן אני אוכל למחר דאי משום הכנה בידים ולומר שיאפו ויבשלו מבעוד יום בהדיא כתיב את אשר תאפו אפו אלא הזמנה בפה קאמר וכתיב ביום הששי וסתם ששי חול הוא ואחשבה רחמנא לסעודת שבת שיזמיננה מבעוד יום ובחול
“All food for Shabbos and Yom Tov has to be prepared from the previous day by the owner saying ‘I will eat this tomorrow.’

The possuk that requires preparation cannot be talking about physical preparation as it is already stated ‘that which they will bake they should bake’ rather the possuk is referring to verbal preparation.

The possuk says ביום הששי, and a regular Friday is a weekday (not Yom Tov). The Torah made the meals of Shabbos significant that they should need to be set aside for Shabbos from the previous weekday.”

So far it would seem from Rashi that this is a special halacha for Shabbos and Yom Tov food that it has to be verbally prepared for Shabbos and Yom Tov beforehand. However, Rashi adds an additional explanation:
לטעמיה דאמר רבה׃ בפסחים ויליף מהכא דמוקצה דאורייתא
“Rabbah is according to his reasoning: In Pesachim where he learns from this passuk that muktzeh is ossur mideoraisoh.”

ואין יום טוב מכין לשבת ׃ ויום טוב נמי קרוי שבת ובעיא סעודתו הזמנה והמנתה בחול אבל סעודת חול לא חשיבא ולא שייכא בה הזמנה הלכך באחד בשבת בעלמא לית לן למיסר ביצה שנולדה ביה משום דאתכן בידי שמים דסעודת חול לא אצרכה רחמנה זמון מבעוד יום דלא שייך בה מוקצה
“Yom Tov cannot prepare for Shabbos: Yom Tov is also called Shabbos and its meals require preparation from the previous weekday but the weekday meal is not חשוב and preparation is not relevant to it therefore on an ordinary Sunday an egg that is born is not ossur due to it’s being prepared on Shabbos because Hashem did not require preparation for a weekday meal because the halacha of muktzeh is not relevant to the meal.”

Why does Rashi involve muktzeh? Surely this is a simple halacha that a Shabbos meal has to be set aside from the previous day?

The Beis Aharon explains that according to Rashi;
Why is using muktze a melacha?
Muktzah may not be used min hatorah. The issur min hatorah is specifically against usage but not against moving it. This is because all melachos prepare items to be used by people. For example, the melachos of choresh, zoreah, kotzer, dosh, tochen, losh and opheh prepare bread to be eaten (or dies to be used for coloring cloth). Each melacha brings the item one step closer to being able to be used by people. However, even after the manufacturing process has been completed, there is still something missing regarding Shabbos.

Food on Shabbos has to be prepared to be eaten. Therefore the owner, before Shabbos, has to take the food item, which is not prepared, and set it aside to be eaten. This constitutes a melacha. Just as physically making the item closer and more fitting to be used by people is a melacha, so too setting aside the completed product to be finally consumed is a melacha as it elevates the food to a state of readiness to be used by people.

That is the meaning of the gemara in Pesachim that says that using muktzeh is ossur because of לא תעשה כל מלאכה.

Why does Rashi involve muktzeh?
When Hashem creates an egg on Shabbos, although He physically created the egg, He does not prepare it to be eaten because Shabbos does not prepare for a weekday. Therefore, if Yom Tov falls on Sunday, when a chicken lays an egg, although there is a physical egg, Hashem has not prepared this egg to be eaten by people. It is an egg, not food. If someone eats the egg, by the very act of eating it he has elevated it to the status of being food, not just an egg. This comprises a melacha.

The gemara in Beitza is based on the gemara in Pesachim. On Shabbos and Yom Tov things can exist in a prepared state or a non-prepared state. For example, wood can be muchan or muktzeh. Because food needs to be set aside to be eaten for Shabbos, on Shabbos there is a distinction between ‘prepared food’ and ‘non prepared food’. This distinction does not exist on a weekday because on a weekday there is no difference in status between prepared (muchan) and not prepared (muktzeh) items, therefore it is not possible to differentiate between prepared food and un-prepared food on a weekday and an egg born on an ordinary Sunday can be eaten despite the fact that Hashem did not prepare it to be eaten when He created it on Shabbos.

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